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APA guidelines (7th) ENG: Online Media reference examples

A detailed explanation of the latest edition of the APA guidelines, with lots of examples. This LibGuide is in English.


Author, A. (Year, Month Day). Title webpage. Name website. Retrieved Month day, year, from http://xxxx or https://xxxxx

  • If the webpage mentions the month and/or day in addition to a year, this is also mentioned in the reference; in the in-the text citation, only the year is mentioned.
  • Many webpages without a year or date do have a copyright notice at the bottom of the page, after a © sign. This says nothing about the date of publication of the webpage, only about the year of copyright of the entire website. Therefore, in these cases, please write n.d. (= 'no date').
  • When different webpages of a website are accessed, each page with its own URL gets its own entry.


  • webpage on a news website

Toner, K. (2020, September 24). When Covid-19 hit, he turned his newspaper route into a lifeline for senior citizens. CNN. Retrieved April 6, 2022, from

Parenthetical citation: (Toner, 2020)
Narrative citation: Toner (2020) 

  •  blog post

Klymkowsky, M. (2019, May 3). Can we talk scientifically about free will? Bioliteracy. Retrieved April 11, 2022, from

Parenthetical citation: (Klymkowsky, 2019)
Narrative citation: Klymkowsky (2019)



Author, A. (Year, Month Day). Title of article. Name database. Retrieved Month day, year, from http://xxxx or https://xxxxx

  • If no author is mentioned, the reference starts with the title of the article.
  • Databases may provide less or additional information. Try to be as complete as possible, when an article has a number this can be put in brackets after the title.


  • Business Source Ultimate
    MarketLine has its own platform, MarketLine Advantage (see below). This example is a company profile created by this company and made public by another database.

MarketLine. (2021). Starbucks Corporation: Company profile (Reference code E86AFA79-07E1-4115-AA0C-0016416541FE). Business Source Ultimate. Retrieved November 17, 2021, from

Parenthetical citation: (MarketLine, 2021)
Narrative citation: MarketLine (2021)

  • MarketLine
    In the citation, Royal Grolsh NV is put between quotation marks because it is the title of the article, not the company as author.

Royal Grolsch NV. (2017, June 5). MarketLine. Retrieved August 10, 2021, from

Parenthetical citation: ("Royal Grolsch NV", 2017)
Narrative citation: "Royal Grolsch NV" (2017)

  •  Statista

Koptyug, E. (2021, July 7). Revenues from mobile online advertising in Germany from 2015 to 2024* (in million euros). Statista. Retrieved August 10, 2021, from

Parenthetical citation: (Koptyug, 2021)
Narrative citation: Koptyug (2021)

Social media

Author, A. (Year, Month Day). Content of the post up to the first 20 words [Description]. Site name. Retrieved Month day, year, from http://xxxx of https://xxxx

  • Only link to original posts. Pinterest, for example, does not contain original material but links to existing files. Click on the image to find out the original URL.
  • Copy the content of the message word-for-word, including any different spelling, hashtags and emojis, up to first 20 words.
  • Most text files can display emojis. If this is not possible, please provide a description in square brackets. Full list of emoji names can be found on the Unicode Consortium's website (
  • If a post includes images, videos, thumbnail links to outside sources, or content from another post (such as when sharing a link), indicate that in square brackets.


  • Facebook

News From Science. (2019, June 21). Are you a fan of astronomy? Enjoy reading about what scientists have discovered in our solar system—and beyond? This [Image attached] [Status update]. Facebook. Retrieved May 20, 2020, from

Parenthetical citation: (News From Science, 2019)

Narrative citation: News from Science (2019) 

  • Instagram/ Twitter/ TikTok: 
  • Present the name of the individual or group author in the same way you would do for any other reference. Then provide the Instagram handle (beginning with the @ sign) in square brackets, followed by a period.

Rijksmuseum [@Rijksmuseum]. (2019, September 9). Recent study proves visiting a museum makes you happy and has a positive effect on your sense of community and [Photograph]. Instagram. Retrieved June 21 2020, from

Parenthetical citation: (Rijksmuseum, 2019)
Narrative citation: Rijksmuseum (2019)

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